Track Categories

The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.

An obstetrician-gynecologist, or OB-GYN, is endured in womanish reproductive health, gestation and parturition.. Others concentrated on the medical care of the womanish reproductive system. Midwives also give routine medical services and preventative examinations. This type of croaker studied obstetrics and gynecology. A branch of drug specializing in the care of women during gestation and parturition and in the opinion and treatment of conditions of the womanish reproductive organs. She also specializes in other women's health issues, similar as menopause, hormonal issues, contraception, and gravidity

 

Trimester In obstetrics, one of these three divisions of three months each during pregnancy in which different phases of fetal development take place. The first trimester is a time of introductory cell isolation. The alternate trimester is a period of rapid-fire growth and development of body systems. A alternate-trimester fetus that's born precociously may be feasible, given the stylish sanitarium care possible. The third trimester makes the final stage of fetal growth, in which systems are completed fat accumulates under the soon-to-be-born baby's skin, and the fetus at last moves into position for birth. This trimester ends with birth.

 

Reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) is a surgical subspecialty of obstetrics and gynecology that trains physicians in reproductive medicine addressing hormonal functioning as it pertains to reproduction as well as the issue of infertility. It has specialty training in obstetrics and gynecology (ob-gyn) before they undergo sub-specialty training (fellowship) in REI. Reproductive surgery is a related specialty, where a physician in ob-gyn or urology further specializes to operate on anatomical disorders that affect fertility

 

The placental membrane separates maternal blood from fetal blood. The maternal component of the placenta is known as the decidua basalis. Oxygen and nutrients in the maternal blood in the intervillous spaces diffuse through the walls of the villi and enter the fetal capillaries. The two chorioamniotic membranes are the amnion and the chorionic, which make up the amniotic sac that surrounds and protects the fetus. The placenta functions as a fetomaternal organ with two components: the fetal placenta (Chorion frondosum), which develops from the same blastocyst that forms the fetus, and the maternal placenta (Decidua basalis), which develops from the Chorion refers to the outermost membrane surrounding an embryo of a reptile, bird, or mammal while placenta refers to a temporary organ that connects the developing fetus via the umbilical cord to the uterine wall in placental mammals. Thus, this explains the main difference between chorion and placenta maternal uterine tissue.

 

Obstetric complications refer to disruptions and disorders of pregnancy, labour and delivery, and the early neonatal period. Examples of such complications include prenatal drug exposure, poor maternal nutrition, minor physical anomalies (or MPAs: indicators of fetal neural maldevelopment, occurring near the end of the first trimester), and birth complications. Obstetric complications can have long-term effects on a child, including an increase in problematic behaviour. Research has identified links between obstetric complications and subsequent human aggression, and suggests that obstetric complications may elicit aggression by affecting brain development.

 

Genetics of infertility. About 10–15% of human couples are infertile, unable to conceive. In approximately in half of these cases, the underlying cause is related to the male. Genetic factors including aneuploidies and single-gene mutations are also contributed to the male infertility. Infertility is common. Out of 100 couples in the United States, about 12 to 13 of them have trouble becoming pregnant. About one-third of infertility cases are caused by fertility problems in women, and another one-third of fertility problems are due to fertility problems in men.

 

Gynaecologic surgery is surgery on any part of a woman’s reproductive system, including the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. Gynaecologic surgeons often do procedures on a woman’s urinary tract as well, including the bladder. Some gynaecologic surgeries are simple and may be done in at the gynaecologist’s office, while others are done in the hospital. Common gynaecologic surgeries include Tubal ligation (tubes tied)Removal of ovarian cysts (non-cancerous growths on an ovary)Removal of cysts or fibroids (non-cancerous growths) in the uterus Removal of growths from the cervix (the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina)Uterine artery embolization, which cuts off the blood supply to a uterine fibroid so it gets smaller Removal of the uterus (hysterectomy), ovaries, or other parts of a woman’s reproductive system Surgical treatment of gynecological (cervical, uterine, and ovarian) cancers Cystoscopy, which is a procedure that lets the doctor look inside the urinary tract to check for growths, bladder stones, or other problems Hysteroscopy, which is a procedure that lets the doctor look inside the uterus by inserting a thin tube through the vagina and cervix.

 

Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery focuses on the surgical and non-surgical treatment of pelvic floor disorders, which include pelvic organ prolapse, incontinence, and pelvic pain. Reconstructive surgery is used to restore the organs of the pelvic floor to their normal position. The surgery used for this condition is a robotic assisted sacrocolpopexy. Pelvic floor reconstruction is a group of surgical procedures used to treat pelvic organ prolapse, a condition that occurs when the muscles of the pelvic floor are weakened or damaged, often due to childbirth. Other causes include repeated heavy lifting, chronic disease, or surgery. Most patients require at least some prescription strength pain medicine for about one to two weeks after surgery. After any surgery to correct urinary incontinence or prolapse, we ask that patients “take it easy” usually for 12 weeks to allow proper healing.

 

Oncology is the study of cancer. An oncologist is a doctor who treats cancer and provides medical care for a person diagnosed with cancer. The field of oncology has three major areas: medical, surgical, and radiation. A medical oncologist treats cancer using chemotherapy or other medications, such as targeted therapy or immunotherapy. A surgical oncologist removes the tumor and nearby tissue during surgery. He or she also performs certain types of biopsies to help diagnose cancer. A radiation oncologist treats cancer using radiation therapy. Other types of oncologists include: A gynecologic oncologist treats gynecologic cancers, such as uterine, ovarian, and cervical cancers. A pediatric oncologist treats cancer in children. Some types of cancer occur most often in children and teenagers. This includes certain brain tumors, leukemia, osteosarcoma, and Ewing’s sarcoma. Types of cancer more common in children sometimes also occur in adults. In these situations, an adult may decide to work with a pediatric oncologist. A hematologist-oncologist diagnoses and treats blood cancers, such as leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma.

Effects of Drugs on Pregnancy

Some medications can adversely affect a fetus, but in some cases the benefits outweigh the risks. Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy may need intensive therapy with insulin to prevent complications to mother and baby. Pain management for the mother is an important area where an evaluation of the benefits and risks is needed. NSAIDs such as ibuprofen and naproxen are probably safe for use for a short period of time, 48–72 hours, once the mother has reached the second trimester. If taking aspirin for pain management the mother should not take a dose higher than 100 mg.

 

Abortion is the ending of a pregnancy by removal or expulsion of an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus. An abortion that occurs without intervention is known as a miscarriage or spontaneous abortion. When deliberate steps are taken to end a pregnancy, it is called an induced abortion, or less frequently "induced miscarriage". The unmodified word abortion generally refers to an induced abortion. A similar procedure after the fetus has potential to survive outside the womb is known as a "late termination of pregnancy" or less accurately as a "late term abortion".

 

Radiography is an imaging technique using X-rays, gamma rays, or similar ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation to view the internal form of an object. Applications of radiography include medical radiography ("diagnostic" and "therapeutic") and industrial radiography.

The creation of images by exposing an object to X-rays or other high-energy forms of electromagnetic radiation and capturing the resulting remnant beam (or "shadow") as a latent image is known as "projection radiography." The "shadow" may be converted to light using a fluorescent screen, which is then captured on photographic film, it may be captured by a phosphor screen to be "read" later by a laser (CR), or it may directly activate a matrix of solid-state detectors (DR—similar to a very large version of a CCD in a digital camera). Bone and some organs (such as lungs) especially lend themselves to projection radiography. It is a relatively low-cost investigation with a high diagnostic yield. The difference between soft and hard body parts stems mostly from the fact that carbon has a very low X-ray cross section compared to calcium.

 

Computed tomography or CT scan (previously known as CAT scan, the "A" standing for "axial") uses ionizing radiation (x-ray radiation) in conjunction with a computer to create images of both soft and hard tissues. These images look as though the patient was sliced like bread (thus, "tomography"-- "tomo" means "slice"). Though CT uses a higher amount of ionizing x-radiation than diagnostic x-rays (both utilizing X-ray radiation), with advances in technology, levels of CT radiation dose and scan times have reduced. CT exams are generally short, most lasting only as long as a breath-hold, Contrast agents are also often used, depending on the tissues needing to be seen. Radiographers perform these examinations, sometimes in conjunction with a radiologist (for instance, when a radiologist performs a CT-guided biopsy).

 

 

Cosmetic Gynecology has become one of the fastest growing subspecialties of elective surgery for women and includes specialists in gynecology, urogynecology, urology, and plastic surgery. This area of special interest includes both cosmetic procedures to enhance the aesthetic appearance of the vulvo/vaginal region, as well as functional vaginal repairs to enhance or help restore sexual function following the changes that may occur following childbirth and/or aging.   Female genital cosmetic surgery also includes aesthetic procedures to improve the cosmetic appearance of the external vulvar/vaginal region. Procedures include labiaplasty or labia minora reduction with or without excess prepuce reduction, labia majora reduction or augmentation, vaginal introital repairs for cosmetic issues as well as reduction of lipodystrophy in the mons pubis region. Recently, new technology has been introduced in the field offering non-surgical/office based procedures to treat female sexual dysfunction (VLS), vaginal health and vulvo/vaginal cosmetic issues for women. This technology includes non-fractional lasers as well as radiofrequency treatments. Scientific studies are currently evaluating this technology for these uses as well as treatment for mild urinary incontinence, urgency/frequency issues as well as vaginal dryness.

 

Hepatitis is a type of infection that can seriously damage your liver. And if you’re pregnant, you can pass it on to your newborn. You can have one of the three most common types of hepatitis viruses -- A, B, and C -- and not know it. Usually, it won’t hurt your unborn baby or affect your pregnancy. If your doctor knows you have it, or might have it, she can help you manage it during your pregnancy to lower the chances of any long-term liver disease for you and your baby.

Labor: Childbirth, the process of delivering a baby and the placenta, membranes, and umbilical cord from the uterus to the vagina to the outside world. During the first stage of labor (which is called dilation), the cervix dilates fully to a diameter of about 10 cm (2 inches). The first stage of labor is divided into two phases: the latent phase and the active phase. In the latent phase, contractions become progressively more coordinated and the cervix dilates to 4 cm (approximately 1.5 inches). The latent phase averages about 8 hours for a nullipara (a woman having her first baby) and 5 hours for a multipara (a woman having a subsequent baby). In the active phase, the cervix becomes fully dilated and the presenting part of the baby descends into the mid pelvis. The active phase averages about 5 hours for a nullipara and 2 hours for a multipara. In the second stage (which is called expulsion), the baby moves out through the cervix and vagina to be born. Expulsion generally lasts 2 hours for a nullipara and l hour for a multipara. The third stage of labor begins with the delivery of the baby and ends when the placenta and membranes are expelled also known as parturition and childbirth.

 

Reproductive disorders are diseases involving the reproductive system, including reproductive tract infections, congenital abnormalities, cancers of the reproductive system and sexual dysfunction.

Reproductive system disease,  any of the diseases and disorders that affect the human reproductive system. They include abnormal hormone production by the ovaries or the testes or by other endocrine glands, such as the pituitary, thyroid, or adrenals. Such diseases can also be caused by genetic or congenital abnormalities, infections, tumours, or disorders of unknown cause.

The main divisions of this article are concerned with (1) genetic and congenital abnormalities, (2) functional genital disorders, (3) infections, (4) structural changes of unknown cause, and (5) tumors. For discussion of diseases and disorders affecting pregnancy, see pregnancy. For diseases and disorders affecting childbirth, see parturition. Hormonal disorders affecting reproductive organs and functions are also discussed in the article human endocrine system.

Infectious diseases covered in this chapter include syphilis, herpes simplex virus (HSV), chancroid, lymph granuloma venereum (LGV), human papillomavirus infection (HPV), and Chlamydia/gonorrhea. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. Sexually transmitted diseases, such as gonorrhea and chlamydia, are typical causes of pelvic inflammatory disease, according to the NIH. "Any of these STIs can cause serious and potentially long term reproductive problems that include chronic pelvic pain and infertility,"

Erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation, loss of libido, testicular cancer and prostate disease may cause embarrassment to the patient and, occasionally, the general practitioner. We describe how patients affected by these conditions may present to general practice, and discuss the reasons why they may not present.

 

 

There we kept two case report of gynaecology cancer, 1) 80-year-old female was diagnosed with ovarian cancer in March 2004. Following gynecological surgery, pathological evaluation showed stage IIIC epithelial ovarian cancer. From March 2004 to January 2005, the patient received six cycles of conventional treatment combined with intravenous paclitaxel (Taxol®) and cisplatin. The patient developed abdominal distension and experienced a gradual deterioration in health during 2007, with admission to The First Affiliated Hospital in May 2007. 2) 53-year-old woman comes in for her first visit. She is an immigrant from South Africa who has lived in the United States for 6 years and has not had regular health care. Her past medical history is notable for hypertension and osteoarthritis. She takes no medications. She is married with six children; her husband is a long-haul truck driver. Her first sexual contact was at age 15, and she has had five partners in her lifetime. She has been smoking one pack of cigarettes per day for the last 31 years. She reports vaginal spotting after intercourse, which she thinks is related to vaginal dryness after menopause.

 

Prostate cancer is the most common male cancer in the UK, accounting for 25% of all new male cancers. Age related, the incidence rises sharply from 50 years of age with the highest incidence in those 75-80 years and higher incidence in men of Afro-Caribbean descent. If a tumour starts to develop on active surveillance or is thought to be intermediate/high risk localised disease, surgical removal of the prostate may be advised.  Surgery is the main treatment for penile cancer where the tumours are very small this may be laser surgery or cryosurgery. Global revenues for the urological cancer market are forecast to grow at a Compound Annual Growth Rate of 10.40%, from $18 billion in 2015 to $36 billion in 2022.

 

reproductive genecology that includes pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period besides sexual and reproductive health of women throughout their lives. Midwifery-led continuity of care is where one or more midwives have the primary responsibility for the continuity of care for childbearing women, with a multidisciplinary network of consultation and referral with other healthcare providers. The actual duties of the midwife in obstetrics and genecology associates categories include antiquity consisted mainly of assisting in the birthing process, although they may also have helped with other medical problems relating to women when needed. These midwives are registered nurses who have completed a nationally accredited graduate level program of study approved by the Accreditation Commission of Midwifery Education to become midwives. These midwives are not required to have health backgrounds before studying midwifery. Their education is usually a year or so in length after which they study as apprentices under other CPM’s or CNM's for experience.

 

They achieve certification in midwifery through a different national exam, given by the North American Registry of Midwives. CPM’s tend to practice in out-of-hospital births, while CNM’s and CM’s often practice in hospitals but also attend birth Centre and home births. 94% of births by CNM’s occur in hospital.

 

 

Family planning as defined by the United Nations and the World Health Organization encompasses services leading up to conception and does not promote abortion as a family planning method, although levels of contraceptive use reduce the need for abortion. Family planning is sometimes used as a synonym or euphemism for access to and the use of contraception. However, it often involves methods and practices in addition to contraception. Some birth control methods use hormones. They will have either both an estrogen and a progestin or a progestin alone. Over the five years to 2018, the Family Planning and Abortion Clinics industry experienced increasing demand, as an increase in the number of people with health insurance & over the five years to 2023, industry revenue is projected to grow.

 

Family planning as defined by the United Nations and the World Health Organization encompasses services leading up to conception and does not promote abortion as a family planning method, although levels of contraceptive use reduce the need for abortion. Family planning is sometimes used as a synonym or euphemism for access to and the use of contraception. However, it often involves methods and practices in addition to contraception. Some birth control methods use hormones. They will have either both an estrogen and a progestin or a progestin alone. Over the five years to 2018, the Family Planning and Abortion Clinics industry experienced increasing demand, as an increase in the number of people with health insurance & over the five years to 2023, industry revenue is projected to grow.

 

An intrauterine device, also known as intrauterine contraceptive device or coil is a small, often T-shaped birth control device that is inserted into a woman's uterus to prevent pregnancy.

IUDs are one form of long-acting reversible birth control. Most copper IUDs have a plastic T-shaped frame that is wound around with pure electrolytic copper wire and/or has copper collars (sleeves). The arms of the frame hold the IUD in place near the top of the uterus. Hormonal IUDs (brand names Mirena, Skyla, Kyleena, and Liletta; referred to as intrauterine systems in the UK) work by releasing a small amount of levonorgestrel, a progestin. The global intrauterine contraceptive devices market is expected to register a CAGR of 11% during the forecast period of 2018-2024.