reproductive genecology that includes pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period besides sexual and reproductive health of women throughout their lives. Midwifery-led continuity of care is where one or more midwives have the primary responsibility for the continuity of care for childbearing women, with a multidisciplinary network of consultation and referral with other healthcare providers. The actual duties of the midwife in obstetrics and genecology associates categories include antiquity consisted mainly of assisting in the birthing process, although they may also have helped with other medical problems relating to women when needed. These midwives are registered nurses who have completed a nationally accredited graduate level program of study approved by the Accreditation Commission of Midwifery Education to become midwives. These midwives are not required to have health backgrounds before studying midwifery. Their education is usually a year or so in length after which they study as apprentices under other CPM’s or CNM's for experience.
They achieve certification in midwifery through a different national exam, given by the North American Registry of Midwives. CPM’s tend to practice in out-of-hospital births, while CNM’s and CM’s often practice in hospitals but also attend birth Centre and home births. 94% of births by CNM’s occur in hospital.